Friday, January 24, 2020
It was in 1936 that James Agee and Walker Evans, on assignment for Fortune magazine, drove into rural Alabama and entered the world of three families of white tenant farmers. And it was in this same year that Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to his second term as president, his New Deal having won the resounding support of American voters. Fortune was not unique in its concern for the tenant farmer; Roosevelt himself appointed a Committee on Farm Tenancy to investigate the situation of this segment of the nation's farming population. The committee's startling report, issued in February of 1937, revealed that tenant farmers constituted half of the farmers in the South, almost a third of farmers in the North, and a fourth of Western farmers. These figures, accompanied by reports of great suffering and stark poverty, led to the enactment of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act, which reorganized the Resettlement Administration as the Farm Security Administration, and which included amo ng its purposes assisting enterprising tenants in becoming landowners. Agee and Evans examined the life of the tenant farmer as closely as the president's committee, but from the perspective of artists, not New Deal politicians or economists. Proposing no economic solutions to the problem of tenant farming, they attempted only to describe the life of the Gudgers, the Woods, and the Ricketts as accurately as possible "in its own terms." Nevertheless, the result of Agee and Evans' endeavors, a book entitled Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, is, as much as the New Deal itself, a great experiment in addressing the issues of social responsibility and human dignity that faced the United States during the 1930s. Roosevelt was elected to the presidency in 1932 because he recognized the need for an innovative approach to the U.S. economy. Financial institutions, including the banking system and the stock market, had been thoroughly undermined along with American confidence, and had miserably failed to recover on their own, as Hoover had promised. The methods that had been used to bring the economy out of a slump in the 1920s were simply not working anymore, and the casualties of depression were rapidly mounting in a frightening new world. As Roosevelt recognized that traditional plans for economic recovery could not end the Depression, so Agee and Evans knew that traditional methods of photography and journalism would not work to convey accurately the hard and simple lives of the tenant farmers.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a lot of research to tell us that discipline in school is different today than it was in the 1950s. But it does take some investigation to find out why. Various studies have shown that students who act up in school express a variety of reasons for doing so: * Some think that teachers donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about them. * Others donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be in school at all. * They donÃ¢â¬â¢t consider goal setting and success in school important anymore. * Students are unaware that their adolescent behaviors will result in punishment they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t like. * Discipline enforcers have to go through long procedures of due process: hearings, specific charges, witnesses, and appeals. Despite these hurdles, students agree that discipline is needed in schools. One high school student stated: Ã¢â¬Å"If there were no discipline, the school would not be distinguished from the street.Ã¢â¬ So if everyone agrees that discipline is key to safety in school, why do we still have a problem? Student-Teacher Relationships In many schools, teachers are intimidated by their students. Out of fear of retaliation, they fail to report problems or ignore them hoping that the students responsible will quit the bad behavior by themselves. Troubled Students State and Federal laws require that some special needs students receive special attention. Many adults and school systems believe that Ã¢â¬Å"troubled studentsÃ¢â¬ are not responsible for their actions, thus theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not punished as severely as other students. Legal Procedures Because of the raised awareness of the civil rights of children, the law requires adults to go through expensive, time-consuming and confusing procedures in regards to school discipline. These legal procedures do protect the rights of children, but make it very difficult to stop school discipline problems. Modeling Very simply, too many adults fail to model the behaviors they want from students. Modeling the rules that students are to follow should be required of all adults. All adults in a community, especially parents and teachers, need to model integrity, honesty, respect and self-control. Enforcement Because of internal administrative problems or lack of procedures, many school officials fail to enforce the rules or punish students for infractions. Some fear lawsuits from parents; others just donÃ¢â¬â¢t care, or theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Ã¢â¬Å"burned out.Ã¢â¬ Time-out and Detention In-school suspensions, time-out and detention have been age-old solutions for troubled students. Yet today, many students donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind detention, preferring it to going home to an empty or abusive household. Many consider time-out a quiet place to work. Detention lets them socialize after school. And both time-out and detention get them attention from caring adults. Ã¢â¬Å"FuzzyÃ¢â¬ Rules Studies have shown that many rules are not strictly enforced. Lots of school and classroom rules donÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to students. Some discipline codes are Ã¢â¬Å"fuzzyÃ¢â¬ and not clear on expectations and punishments. Some disruptive students are labeled with codes like ADHD (Attention Defecit/Hyperactivity Disorder) or Emotional Impairment. This leads some school staff to mistakenly assume that they cannot enforce positive behavior and instead must resort to asking parents to Ã¢â¬Å"medicateÃ¢â¬ them. Self Esteem Many schools have emphasized self-esteem over and above everything else. Some teachers are afraid to discipline or demand good behavior because it will hurt the childÃ¢â¬â¢s self esteem. The result? Now we have ill-behaved, rude kids-but they feel good about themselves. Discipline Trends that Show Promise Some schools are taking control of and finding ways to confront the problems of discipline and school violence. Here are a few programs that seem to be working: * Reaching Success through Involvement: This process has been used in 17 schools across the nation. It involves students in improving their schools, requires adult school members and student leaders to form a community of learners and leaders for improvement. This process alters school contracts, roles and responsibilities of students, teachers and administrators. The students work with the adults to help other students develop a sense of ownership and control. This new feeling of control makes students more motivated to learn. It has been a success in the 17 schools and is being introduced in more schools around the nation. * Parental involvement: In Paterson, New Jersey, parents of truant students are not fined or jailed, they are required to come to school by the court. This punishment leads to a decrease in truancy. Also, in both Maryland and South Carolina, the punishment for some school discipline problems is to require the parents to attend school with their children. Once the parents see that education is important for their children, their children have not been repeat offenders. * Alternative schools: Many school systems have found that by permanently removing chronically disruptive students from the classroom to an alternative school situation, the school discipline problems from the first school decrease drastically. * School scheduling: Many schools have found that a simple solution of rescheduling school lunches has dramatically decreased discipline problems. By spreading lunches out for a longer period, there are fewer frustrations, temper flare ups, and other problems resulting from the stress of having to put up with a crowded lunch period. * School I.D.s: Many schools are also requiring their students to display a picture I.D to cut down on unauthorized persons coming into a school to promote disruptions. This also eases the impersonal atmosphere of larger schools by letting students and teachers learn one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s names. * Recognition that school is a learning place: Repeatedly, school systems are stressing that schools are a place for learning, not a recreation/social center for students. Once this Ã¢â¬Å"learning atmosphereÃ¢â¬ is established and enforced, schools have a lower percentage of discipline problems. Basically, school discipline has become lax over the years as our relationships have weakened. Consolidated school systems and mega schools have made the separation between family and school wider than ever. These mega schools have largely ignored the local community. Also, some parents have lost touch with their children for many different reasons. For school discipline to be successful, we need to restore those relationships. Parents and schools need to work together to instill the importance of education into children of all ages. Finding discipline procedures that work is a job for students, parents, and teachers to explore together. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, working together within the school and community will help teach children that working as a team can effectively solve the problem.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Failure at Tyco International, Ltd. LDR / 531 January 31, 2011 Clance Doelling Failure at Tyco International, Ltd. Tyco International Ltd is a diverse manufacturer who grew tremendously in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s. The company had big ambitions with an aggressive program of acquisitions during this period where they spent an estimated $62 billion to purchase more than 1,000 companies. However, unbeknownst to the shareholders of Tyco and the world, Tyco was led by a management team and CEO (L. Dennis Kozlowski) that did not use wise or truthful business practices and organizational behavior. In the following paper, I will examine the failure that occurred at Tyco, compare, and contrast contributions of leadership, management,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational behavior is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance.Ã¢â¬ (Robbins and Timothy, 2007, p. 10). A healthy organization responds to globalization and increasing market share by u nderstanding itsÃ¢â¬â¢ foreign assignments, people from different cultures, managing diversity, and foreign implications. Tyco quickly made acquisitions and developed offshore networks that were managed by executives that did not enforce an ethical code of behavior. Tyco falsified accounting records in order to meet U.S. standards and profitability. Tyco set their sights on strategies that would improve growth and investments, with disregard to any type of business code of ethics or standards. Complications surfaced that the company was not handling money correctly and top management was to blame. Either the company did not properly train their management (especially those who handled the financial aspects of the business) or management was not governing themselves by company policies and procedures that would make the business successful. It appears Kozlowski and his top executives were able to persuade many employees to overlook company policies and procedures to pursue hig h margins of profitability. This demonstrates that the organizational culture and management behavior was overlooking their ethical obligations to the shareholder, company, and employees of Tyco. They were willing toShow MoreRelatedEssay on Examining a Business Failure - Tyco1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBusiness Failure: Tyco International Ltd. Ã ® LDR 531 August 23, 2010 Examining a Business Failure: Tyco International Ltd. Ã ® Many have heard the proverb, Ã¢â¬Å"A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.Ã¢â¬ This can be directly applied to business organizations through analysis of the three strongest and/or weakest links: managers, leaders and the organizational structure. 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